The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an agreement that brought together three North American countries, the United States, Canada and Mexico, to form a trading bloc in North America. The agreement was designed to reduce trade costs and make North America a competitive trading bloc in the global marketplace. After U.S. President Donald Trump took office in January 2017, he tried to replace NAFTA with a new agreement and began negotiations with Canada and Mexico. In September 2018, the United States, Mexico and Canada reached an agreement to replace NAFTA with the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), and the three countries had ratified it until March 2020. Nafta remained in effect until the implementation of the USMCA.  In April 2020, Canada and Mexico informed the United States that they were ready to implement the agreement.  The USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020 and replaced NAFTA. Fifth, all NAFTA countries were required to respect patents, trademarks and copyrights. At the same time, the agreement ensured that these intellectual property rights did not affect trade. The meat industry was one of the most affected agricultural sectors. In 2004, Mexico moved from a small player in the U.S.
export market to the second largest importer of U.S. agricultural products, and NAFTA may have been an important catalyst for this change. Free trade has removed barriers to business between the two countries, allowing Mexico to offer a growing meat market in the United States and increase sales and profits for the meat industry in the United States. A simultaneous and dramatic increase in Mexican GDP per capita has significantly changed meat consumption patterns due to increased per capita meat consumption.  According to the Sierra Club, NAFTA has contributed to the increased use of fossil fuels, pesticides and GMOs.  NAFTA has also contributed to environmentally harmful mining practices in Mexico.  It has prevented Canada from effectively regulating its oil sands industry and has created new legal opportunities for transnational companies to combat environmental legislation.  In some cases, environmental policy has been neglected as a result of trade liberalization; In other cases, NAFTA`s investment protection measures, such as Chapter 11, and measures to address non-tariff barriers to trade have threatened to discourage stronger environmental policy.  The most severe increases in pollution attributable to NAFTA were in the base metals, Mexican petroleum and transportation equipment sectors in the United States and Mexico, but not in Canada.  In 1984, Congress passed the Trade and Tariff Act, which gave the president quick power to negotiate free trade agreements.