59Jespersen says that a word such as herd or herd refers to a compilation of things as a phrase and that they are rightly called collectives. Such words refer to a unit of several things or beings that can be counted separately. Therefore, a collective nomun from one point of view is “one,” and from another point of view is “more than one.” (Jespersen 1953, 195) The double side of collective nouns is presented grammatically: the verb, if it refers for example to plurality, may be plural (Jespersen 1953, p. 195). A similar explanation is presented in the research literature that addresses the issue of adjective conformity with collective subtanti catives in Arabic, as shown in the following quotation: 72The quantitative study presented here can prove and reinforce the finding of Belnap and Shabaneh and specify when distracted agreement is preferred in the Koran. 42 Arab grammarians recognize three numerical categories for Arabic names and adjectives. Singular (mufrad), dual (muṯannā) and plural (`am`). Grammars continue to divide plural forms into broken plural (`am`t-taks`r) and sonplural (al-am`s-s-s`s`lim). The pluralists are then subdivided into a pluralist of scarcity (`am` l-qilla`, which comprises three to ten points and the plural of multiplicity (`am` l-kaṯra`) with more than ten elements (Ratcliffe 1998, 28 According to Fischer, the plural of scarcity generally appears according to the figures 3-10, except in both cases Q 2:228 ṯalāṯata “three periods,” “where there is a plural of diversity instead of the plural of scarcity in the form of afulun or afelun. In Q 27:48, there is a collective name according to a number of “nine groups of people” (Fischer 1980, p. 75).29 The question raised by this division of the plura is whether it influences the type of contract; that is, the form of the noun in the plural, is the non-human form secret to base the adjective in the broken or sonorous plural? And if so, what is the implication of the adjective in the female singular, which corresponds to a plural noun that designates non-humans? 22Comprehensively: out of 1,461 adjectives collected, there are 1258 whose consent is transparent, compared to 203 with obscure consent.
1Is agreed uniformly by traditional Arab grammars and Western grammars that the adjective, the example of raulun karenmun (“a noble man” is quite consistent with the nostantif on determination or indeterminacy, as well as on sex, number and case.1 This example also corresponds to the working definition of the term “agreement” – a definition that should be presented here to better understand the term. 55Tha is the consequence that adjectives in singular female plurals coincide with non-human plurals. A possible explanation for this type of agreement was found in Killean`s article, which considers the characteristics of concordance in modern literary Arabic. According to Killean, the agreement of the female singular with non-human subtantes is clearly synonymous with a castrated sex in other languages, although this agreement is manifested only by the plural number, a clearly identified category. This type of agreement can be viewed as a synchronization of the number associated with gender neutralization. That is, the number is totally different for these plural forms and the sex is limited to the category of women. It is clear from this statement that, if the number is not marked, it indicates that this type of agreement does not intend to refer to the number of articles.